Normalization

Normalization

 

The biggest problem needed to be solved in the database is data redundancy.
Why is data redundancy the problem? Because it causes:

Insert Anomaly
Update Anomaly
Delete Anomaly

Teacher Subject Degree Phone
Ram Kumar Database Master’s 012666777
Van Sokhen Database Bachelor’s 017678678
Sok San E-Commerce Master’s 012666777

Normalization is the process of removing redundant data from your tables to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability.
Normalization generally involves splitting existing tables into multiple ones, which must be re-joined or linked each time a query is issued.

Why normalization?

The relation derived from the user view or data store will most likely be unnormalized.
The problem usually happens when an existing system uses an unstructured file, e.g. in MS Excel.

Steps of Normalization

First Normal Form (1NF)
Second Normal Form (2NF)
Third Normal Form (3NF)
Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)
Fourth Normal Form (4NF)
Fifth Normal Form (5NF)

In practice, 1NF, 2NF, and 3NF are enough for the database.

First Normal Form (1NF)

The official qualifications for 1NF are:

  1. Each attribute name must be unique.
  1. Each attribute value must be single.
  1. Each row must be unique.
  1. There is no repeating groups.

Additional:

Choose a primary key.

Reminder:

A primary key is unique, not null, unchanged. A primary key can be either an attribute or combined attributes.

Example of a table not in 1NF 

Group Topic Student Score
Group A Intro MongoDB Sok San 18 marks
Sao Ry 17 marks
Group B Intro MySQL Chan Tina 19 marks
Tith Sophea 16 marks

It violates the 1NF because:
Attribute values are not single.
Repeating groups exist.

1nf

1nf

Now it is in 1NF.

However, it might still violate 2NF and so on.

Functional Dependencies

We say an attribute, B, has a functional dependency on another attribute, A, if for any two records, which have the same value for A, then the values for B in these two records must be the same. We illustrate this as:

2nf

2nf

employee name email address

funcational dependancy

functional dependency

If EmpNum is the PK then the FDs:
EmpNum, EmpEmail, EmpFname, EmpLname must exist.

Functional Dependency
EmpNum –> EmpEmail
Attribute on the left-hand side is known as the
determinant
• EmpNum is a determinant of EmpEmail

Second Normal Form (2NF)

The official qualifications for 2NF are:

  1. A table is already in 1NF.
  1. All nonkey attributes are fully dependent on the primary key.

All partial dependencies are removed to place in another table.

second nf

second nf

The Course Name depends on only CourseID, a part of the primary key, not the whole primary {CourseID, SemesterID}.It’s called partial dependency.

Solution: Remove CourseID and Course Name together to create a new table.

Third Normal Form (3NF)

The official qualifications for 3NF are:
1. A table is already in 2NF.
2. Nonprimary key attributes do not depend on other
nonprimary key attributes
(i.e. no transitive dependencies)
All transitive dependencies are removed to place in
another table.


Solution:
Remove Teacher Name and Teacher Tel together to create a new table.

Boyce Codd Normal Form (BCNF) – 3.5NF

The official qualifications for BCNF are:

  1. A table is already in 3NF.
  1. All determinants must be superkeys.

All determinants that are not superkeys are removed to place in another table.

Key: {Student, Course}

Functional Dependency:

{Student, Course} –> Teacher

Teacher–> Course

Problem: Teacher is not a superkey but determines Course.


Fourth Normal Form (4NF)

The official qualifications for 4NF are:
1. A table is already in BCNF.
2. A table contains no multi-valued dependencies.
* Multi-valued dependency: MVDs occur when two
or more independent multi valued facts about the
same attribute occur within the same table.
A =>=> B (B multi-valued depends on A)

Fifth Normal Form (5NF)

The official qualifications for 5NF are:
1. A table is already in 4NF.
2. The attributes of multi-valued dependencies are related.

5th nf
5th noraml form

ER Model to Relational Model

ER Model to Relational Model

ER Model, when conceptualized into diagrams, gives a good overview of entity-relationship, which is easier to understand. ER diagrams can be mapped to relational schema, that is, it is possible to create relational schema using ER diagram. We cannot import all the ER constraints into relational model, but an approximate schema can be generated.

There are several processes and algorithms available to convert ER Diagrams into Relational Schema. Some of them are automated and some of them are manual. We may focus here on the mapping diagram contents to relational basics.

ER diagrams mainly comprise of −

  • Entity and its attributes
  • Relationship, which is association among entities.

Mapping Entity

An entity is a real-world object with some attributes.

 

mapping_entities

mapping_entities

Mapping Process (Algorithm)

  • Create table for each entity.
  • Entity’s attributes should become fields of tables with their respective data types.
  • Declare primary key.

Mapping Relationship

A relationship is an association among entities.

mapping_relationship

mapping_relationship

Mapping Process

  • Create table for a relationship.
  • Add the primary keys of all participating Entities as fields of table with their respective data types.
  • If relationship has any attribute, add each attribute as field of table.
  • Declare a primary key composing all the primary keys of participating entities.
  • Declare all foreign key constraints.

Mapping Weak Entity Sets

A weak entity set is one which does not have any primary key associated with it.

mapping_weak_entity_sets

mapping_weak_entity_sets

Mapping Process

  • Create table for weak entity set.
  • Add all its attributes to table as field.
  • Add the primary key of identifying entity set.
  • Declare all foreign key constraints.

Mapping Hierarchical Entities

ER specialization or generalization comes in the form of hierarchical entity sets.

inheritance

inheritance

Mapping Process

  • Create tables for all higher-level entities.
  • Create tables for lower-level entities.
  • Add primary keys of higher-level entities in the table of lower-level entities.
  • In lower-level tables, add all other attributes of lower-level entities.
  • Declare primary key of the higher-level table and the primary key for a lower-level table.
  • Declare foreign key constraints.
UGC NET Syllabus

UGC NET Syllabus

UGC NET / SET / SLET Syllabus for Paper I

UGC NET Paper 1: The main objective is to assess the teaching and research capabilities of the candidates. Therefore, the test is aimed at assessing the teaching and general/research aptitude as Well as their awareness. They are expected to possess and exhibit cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities include comprehension, analysis, evaluation, understanding the structure of arguments and deductive and inductive reasoning. The candidates are also expected to have a general awareness and knowledge of sources of information. They should be aware of interaction between people, environment and natural resources and their impact on quality of life.

Question Pattern: Paper 1 is General Paper on Teaching and Research Aptitude and is compulsory for all subjects with the subject code 00. The UGC NET Examination Paper I contains Sixty (60) multiple choice questions, each question carrying two (2) marks. Candidate is expected to answer any Fifty (50) questions. In case more than Fifty (50) questions are attempted, only the first Fifty (50) questions will be evaluated. Paper I will have 100 marks in total. The objective type questions will include multiple choices, matching type, true / false and assertion-reasoning type.

www.netugc.com
Each section of the syllabus will gets equal weightage: five questions and 10 mark each section. Whenever pictorial questions are set for the sighted candidates a passage followed by equal number of questions should be set for the visually handicapped candidates.

I. Teaching Aptitude
Teaching : Nature, objectives, characteristics and basic requirements; Learner’s characteristics; Factors affecting teaching; Methods of teaching; Teaching aids; Evaluation systems.

II. Research Aptitude
Research : Meaning, characteristics and types; Steps of research; Methods of research; Research Ethics; Paper, article, workshop, seminar, conference and symposium; Thesis writing: its characteristics and format.
.
www.netugc.com

III. Reading Comprehension
A passage to be set with questions to be answered.

IV. Communication
Communication : Nature, characteristics, types, barriers and effective classroom communication.

V. Reasoning (Including Mathematical)
Number series; letter series; codes; > Relationships; classification.
VI. Logical Reasoning
Understanding the structure of arguments; Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning; Verbal analogies : Word analogy — Applied analogy; Verbal classification.
Reasoning Logical Diagrams : Simple diagrammatic relationship, multidiagrammatic relationship;
Venn diagram; Analytical Reasoning.

VII. Data Interpretation
Sources, acquisition and interpretation of datag. ‘P Quantitative and qualitative data; > Graphical representation and mapping of data.

VIII. Information and Communicating Technology (ICT)
ICT : meaning, advantages, disadvantages and uses; > General abbreviations and terminology; > Basics of internet and e-mailing.

IX. People and Environment
People and environment interaction;
Sources of pollution;
Pollutants and their impact on human life, exploitation of natural and energy
resources;
Natural hazards and mitigation
.
X. Higher Education System : Governance Polity And Administration;
Structure of the institutions for higher learning and research in India; formal and distance education; professional/technical and general education; value education: governance, polity and administration; concept, institutions and their interactions.

 

UGC NET / SET / SLET Syllabus for Paper II & III

  1. Discrete Structures

Sets, Relations, Functions. Pigeonhole Principle, Inclusion-Exclusion Principle, Equivalence and Partial Orderings, Elementary Counting Techniques, Probability. Measure (s) for information and Mutual information.

Computability: Models of computation-Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata, Non – determinism and NFA, DPDA and PDAs and Languages accepted by these structures. Grammars, Languages, Non – computability and Examples of non – computable problems

Graph : Definition, walks, paths, trails, connected graphs, regular and bipartite graphs, cycles and circuits. Tree and rooted tree. Spanning trees. Eccentricity of a vertex radius and diameter of a graph. Central Graphs. Centres of a tree. Hamiltonian and Eulerian graphs, Planar graphs.

Groups : Finite fields and Error correcting / detecting codes.

Theory of Computation: Formal language, Need for formal computational models, Non-computational problems, diagonal argument and Russel’s paradox.

Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), Non – deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA), Regular languages and regular sets, Equivalence of DFA and NFA. Minimizing the number of states of a DFA. Non-regular languages, and Pumping lemma.

Pushdown Automaton (PDA), Deterministic Pushdown Automaton ( DPDA ), Non – equilvalence of PDA and DPDA.

Context free Grammars: Greibach Normal Form ( GNF ) and Chomsky Normal Form (CNF), Ambiguity, Parse Tree Representation of Derivations. Equivalence of PDA’s and CFG’s. Parsing techniques for parsing of general CFG’s – Early’s, Cook – Kassami-Younger (CKY), and Tomita’s parsing.

Linear Bounded Automata (LBA) : Power of LBA Closure properties.

Turing Machine (TM): One tape, multitape. The notions of time and space complexity in terms of TM. Construction of TM for simple problems. Computational complexity.

Chomsky Hierarchy of languages: Recursive and recursively-enumerable languages.

Models for Information Channel : Discrete Memoryless Channel, Binary Symmetric Channel ( BSC ), Burst Channel, Bit-error rates. Probability, Entropy and Shannon’s measure of information. Mutual information. Channel capacity theorem. Rate and optimality of Information transmission.

Variable Length Codes : Prefix Codes, Huffmann Codes, Lempel-Ziev ( LZ ) Codes. Optirnality of these codes. Information content of these codes.

Error Correcting and Detecting Codes: Finite fields, Hamming distance, Bounds of codes, Linear (Parity Check) codes, Parity check matrix, Generator matrix, Decoding of linear codes, Hamming codes.

Image Processing: Image Registration, Spatial Fourier Transforms, Discrete Spatial ( 2 dimensional ) Fourier Transforms, Restoration, Lossy Compression of images ( pictures ).

Data Compression Techniques: Representation and compression of text, sound, picture, and video files ( based on the JPEG and MPEG standards ).

  1. Computer Arithmetic

Propositional (Boolean) Logic, Predicate Logic, Well – formed – formulae (WFF), Satisfiability and Tautology.

Logic Families: TTL, ECL and C – MOS gates. Boolean algebra and Minimization of Boolean functions. Flip-flops – types, race condition and comparison. Design of combinational and sequential circuits.

Representation of Integers : Octal, Hex, Decimal, and Binary. 2’s complement and 1’s complement arithmetic. Floating point representation.

  1. Programming in C and C++

Programming in C: Elements of C – Tokens, identifiers, data types in C. Control structures in C. Sequence, selection and iteration(s). Structured data types in C-arrays, struct, union, string, and pointers.

O – O Programming Concepts: Class, object, instantiation. Inheritance, polymorphism and overloading.

C++ Programming: Elements of C++ – Tokens, identifiers. Variables and constants, Datatypes, Operators, Control statements. Functions parameter passing. Class and objects. Constructors and destructors. Overloading, Inheritance, Templates, Exception handling.

  1. Relational Database Design and SQL

E-R diagrams and their transformation to relational design, normalization – INF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF and 4NF. Limitations of 4NF and BCNF.

SQL: Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML), Data Control Language (DCL) commands. Database objects like-Views, indexes, sequences, synonyms, data dictionary.

  1. Data and File structures

Data, Information, Definition of data structure. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, graphs, priority queues and heaps.

File Structures: Fields, records and files. Sequential, direct, index-sequential and relative files. Hashing, inverted lists and multi – lists. B trees and B+ trees.

  1. Computer Networks

Network fundamentals : Local Area Networks (LAN), Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Wireless Networks, Inter Networks.

Reference Models: The OSI model, TCP / IP model.

Data Communication: Channel capacity. Transmission media-twisted pair, coaxial cables, fibre – optic cables, wireless transmission-radio, microwave, infrared and millimeter waves. Lightwave transmission. Thelephones – local loop, trunks, multiplexing, switching, narrowband ISDN, broadband ISDN, ATM, High speed LANS. Cellular Radio. Communication satellites-geosynchronous and low-orbit.

Internetworking: Switch / Hub, Bridge, Router, Gateways, Concatenated virtual circuits, Tunnelling, Fragmentation, Firewalls.

Routing: Virtual circuits and datagrams. Routing algorithms. Conjestion control.

Network Security: Cryptography-public key, secret key. Domain Name System ( DNS ) – Electronic Mail and Worldwide Web ( WWW ). The DNS, Resource Records, Name servers. E-mail-architecture and Serves.

Neural Networks : Perceptron model, Linear separability and XOR problem. Two and three layered neural nets, Back Propagation – Convergence, Hopfield nets, Neural net learning, Applications.

Fuzzy Systems: Definition of a Fuzzy set, Fuzzy relations, Fuzzy functions, Fuzzy measures, Fuzzy reasoning, Applications of Fuzzy systems

  1. System Software and Compilers

Assembly language fundamentals ( 8085 based assembly language programming ). Assemblers-2-pass and single-pass. Macros and macroprocessors.

Loading, linking, relocation, program relocatability. Linkage editing.

Text editors. Programming Environments. Debuggers and program generators.

Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers. Phases of compilation process. Lexical analysis. Lex package on Unix system.

Context free grammars. Parsing and parse trees. Representation of parse ( derivation ) trees as rightmost and leftmost derivations. Bottom up parsers-shift-reduce, operator precedence, and LR. YACC package on Unix system.

Topdown parsers-left recursion and its removal. Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser. Intermediate codes-Quadruples, Triples, Intermediate code generation, Code generation, Code optimization.

  1. Operating Systems (with Case Study of Unix)

Main functions of operating systems. Multiprogramming, multiprocessing, and multitasking.

Memory Management: Virtual memory, paging, fragmentation.

Concurrent Processing: Mutual exclusion. Critical regions, lock and unlock.

Scheduling: CPU scheduling, I / O scheduling, Resource scheduling. Deadlock and scheduling algorithms. Banker’s algorithm for deadlock handling.

UNIX: The Unix System : File system, process management, bourne shell, shell variables, command line programming.

Filters and Commands : Pr, head, tail, cut, paste, sort, uniq, tr, join, etc., grep, egrep, fgrep, etc., sed, awk, etc.

System Calls ( like ) : Creat, open, close, read, write, iseek, link, unlink, stat, fstat, umask, chmod, exec, fork, wait, system.

Unix : Operating System, Structure of Unix Operating System, Unix Commands, Interfacing with Unix, Editors and Compilers for Unix, LEX and YACC, File system, System calls, Filters, Shell programming.

Windows : Windows environment, Unicode, Documents and Views, Drawing in a window, Message handling, Scrolling and Splitting views, Docking toolbars and Status bars, Common dialogs and Controls, MDI, Multithreading, OLE, Active X controls, ATL, Database access, Network programming.

  1. Software Engineering

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) : Steps, Water fall model, Prototypes, Spiral model.

Software Metrics: Software Project Management.

Software Design: System design, detailed design, function oriented design, object oriented design, user interface design. Design level metrics.

Coding and Testing: Testing level metrics. Software quality and reliability. Clean room approach, software reengineering.

  1. Current Trends and Technologies

The topics of current interest in Computer Science and Computer Applications shall be covered. The experts shall use their judgement from time to time to include the topics of popular interest, which are expected to be known for an application development software professional, currently, they include:

Parallel Computing: Parallel virtual machine ( pvm ) and message passing interface ( MPI ) libraries and calls. Advanced architectures. Today’s fastest computers.

Mobile Computing: Mobile connectivity – Cells, Framework, wireless delivery technology and switching methods, mobile information access devices, mobile data internetworking standards, cellular data communication protocols, mobile computing applications. Mobile databases – protocols, scope, tools and technology. M-business.

E – Technologies

Electronic Commerce: Framework, Media Convergence of Applications, Consumer Applications, Organisation Applications.

Electronic Payment Systems: Digital Token, Smart Cards, Credit Cards, Risks in Electronic Payment System, Designing Electronic Payment Systems.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Concepts, Applications, (Legal, Security and Privacy) issues, EDI and Electronic Commerce, Standardization and EDI, EDI Software Implementation, EDI Envelope for Message Transport, Internet – Based EDI.

Digital Libraries and Data Warehousing: Concepts, Types of Digital documents, Issues behind document Infrastructure, Corporate Data Warehouses.

Software Agents: Characteristics and Properties of Agents, Technology behind Software Agents (Applets, Browsers and Software Agents).

Broadband Telecommunications: Concepts, Frame Relay, Cell Relay, Switched Multimegabit Data Service, Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

Main concepts in Geographical Information System (GIS), E – cash, E – Business, ERP packages.

Data Warehousing: Data Warehouse environment, architecture of a data warehouse methodology, analysis, design, construction and administration.

Data Mining: Extracting models and patterns from large databases, data mining techniques, classification, regression, clustering, summarization, dependency modelling, link analysis, sequencing analysis, mining scientific and business data.

Windows Programming: Introduction to Windows programming – Win32, Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC), Documents and views, Resources, Message handling in windows.

Simple Applications (in windows) : Scrolling, splitting views, docking toolbars, status bars, common dialogs.

Advanced Windows Programming: Multiple Document Interface ( MDI ), Multithreading. Object linking and Embedding (OLE). Active X controls. Active Template Library (ATL). Network programming.

Unit – 11

Combinational Circuit Design, Sequential Circuit Design, Hardwired and Micro Programmed processor design, Instruction formats, Addressing modes, Memory types and organisation, Interfacing peripheral devices, Interrupts.

Microprocessor architecture, Instruction set and Programming ( 8085, P – III / P – IV ), Microprocessor applications.

Unit – 12:

Database Concepts, ER diagrams, Data Models, Design of Relational Database, Normalisation, SQL and QBE, Query Processing and Optimisation, Centralised and Distributed Database, Security, Concurrency and Recovery in Centralised and Distributed Database Systems, Object Oriented Database Management Systems ( Concepts, Composite objects, Integration with RDBMS application), ORACLE.

Unit – 13:

Display systems, Input devices, 2D Geometry, Graphic operations, 3D Graphics, Animation, Graphic standard, Applications.

Concepts, Storage Devices, Input Tools, Authoring Tools, Application, Files.

Unit – 14:

Programming language concepts, paradigms and models.

Data : Data types, Operators, Expressions, Assignment. Flow of Control.

Control structures, I / O statements, User – defined and built – in functions, Parameter passing.

Principles, classes, inheritance, class hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, reference semantics and their implementation.

Principles, functions, lists, types and polymorphisms, higher order functions, lazy evaluation, equations and pattern matching.

Principles, horn clauses and their execution, logical variables, relations, data structures, controlling the search order, program development in prolog, implementation of prolog, example programs in prolog.

Principles of parallelism, coroutines, communication and execution. Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) routines and calls. Parallel programs in PVM paradigm as well as MPI paradigm for simple problems like matrix multiplication.

Preconditions, post-conditions, axiomatic approach for semantics, correctness, denotational semantics.

Compiler structure, compiler construction tools, compilation phases.

Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata. Non-determinism and NFA, DPDA, and PDAs and languages accepted by these structures. Grammars, Languages – types of grammars – type 0, type 1, type 2, and type 3. The relationship between types of grammars, and finite machines. Pushdown automata and Context Free Grammars. Lexical Analysis-regular expressions and regular languages. LEX package on Unix. Conversion of NFA to DFA. Minimizing the number of states in a DFA Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers.

Context free grammars. Parsing and parse trees. Representation of parse ( derivation ) trees as rightmost and leftmost derivations. Bottom up parsers-shift-reduce, operator precedence, and LR. YACC package on Unix system. Top down parsers-left recursion and its removal. Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser, Intermediate codes – Quadruples, triples. Intermediate code generation, code generation. Code optimization.

Linear Programming Problem ( LPP ) in the standard form, LPP in Canonical form. Conversion of LPP in Standard form to LPP in Canonical form. Simplex-Prevention of cyclic computations in Simplex and Tableau, Big-M method, dual simplex and revised simplex.

Complexity of simplex algorithm(s). Exponential behaviour of simplex.

Ellipsoid method and Karmakar’s method for solving LPPs. Solving simple LPPs through these methods. Comparison of complexity of these methods.

Assignment and Transportation Problems : Simple algorithms like Hungarian method, etc.

Shortest Path Problems : Dijkstra’s and Moore’s method. Complexity.

Network Flow Problem : Formulation. Max – Flow Min – Cut theorem. Ford and Fulkerson’s algorithm. Exponential behaviour of Ford and Fulkerson’s algorithm. Malhotra – Pramodkumar-Maheshwari ( MPM ) Polynomial algorithm for solving Network flow problem. Bipartite Graphs and Matchings; Solving matching problems using Network flow problems.

Matroids : Definition. Graphic and Cographic matroids. Matroid intersection problem.

Non-linear Programming : Kuhn – Tucker conditions. Convex functions and Convex regions. Convex programming problems. Algorithms for solving convex programming problems-Rate of convergence of iterative methods for solving these problems.

Unit – 15:

Analog and Digital transmission, Asynchronous and Synchronous transmission, Transmission media, Multiplexing and Concentration, Switching techniques, Polling.

Topologies, Networking Devices, OSI Reference Model, Protocols for:

Data link layer

Network layer

Transport layer, TCP / IP protocols, Networks security, Network administration.

Unit – 16:

Definition, Simple and Composite structures, Arrays, Lists, Stacks queues, Priority queues. Binary trees, B – trees, Graphs.

Sorting and Searching Algorithms, Analysis of Algorithms, Interpolation and Binary Search, Asymptotic notations-big ohm, omega and theta. Average case analysis of simple programs like finding of a maximum of n elements. Recursion and its systematic removal. Quicksort – Non – recursive implementation with minimal stack storage. Design of Algorithms ( Divide and Conquer, Greedy method, Dynamic programming, Back tracking, Branch and Bound ). Lower bound theory, Non – deterministic algorithm – Non – deterministic programming constructs. Simple non-deterministic programs. NP – hard and NP – complete problems.

Unit – 17:

Object, messages, classes, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, aggregation, abstract classes, generalization as extension and restriction. Object oriented design. Multiple inheritance, metadata.

HTML, DHTML, XML, Scripting, Java, Servelets, Applets.

Unit – 18:

Software development models, Requirement analysis and specifications, Software design, Programming techniques and tools, Software validation and quality assurance techniques, Software maintenance and advanced concepts, Software management.

Unit – 19:

Introduction, Memory management, Support for concurrent process, Scheduling, System deadlock, Multiprogramming system, I/O management, Distributed operating systems, Study of Unix and Windows NT.

Unit – 20:

Definitions, AI approach for solving problems.

Automated Reasoning with prepositional logic and predicate logic-fundamental proof procedure, refutation, resolution, refinements to resolution ( ordering / pruning / restriction strategies ).

State space representation of problems, bounding functions, breadth first, depth first, A, A*, AO*, etc. Performance comparison of various search techniques.

Frames, scripts, semantic nets, production systems, procedural representations. Prolog programming.

Components of an expert system, Knowledge representation and Acquisition techniques, Building expert system and Shell.

RTNs, ATNs, Parsing of Ambiguous CFGs. Tree Adjoining Grammars ( TAGs ).

Systems approach to planning, Designing, Development, Implementation and Evaluation of MIS.

Decision-making processes, evaluation of DSS, Group decision support system and case studies, Adaptive design approach to DSS development, Cognitive style in DSS, Integrating expert and Decision support systems.

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