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]]>The biggest problem needed to be solved in the database is data redundancy.
Why is data redundancy the problem? Because it causes:
Insert Anomaly
Update Anomaly
Delete Anomaly
Teacher  Subject  Degree  Phone 

Ram Kumar  Database  Master’s  012666777 
Van Sokhen  Database  Bachelor’s  017678678 
Sok San  ECommerce  Master’s  012666777 
Normalization is the process of removing redundant data from your tables to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability.
Normalization generally involves splitting existing tables into multiple ones, which must be rejoined or linked each time a query is issued.
Why normalization?
The relation derived from the user view or data store will most likely be unnormalized.
The problem usually happens when an existing system uses an unstructured file, e.g. in MS Excel.
Steps of Normalization
First Normal Form (1NF)
Second Normal Form (2NF)
Third Normal Form (3NF)
BoyceCodd Normal Form (BCNF)
Fourth Normal Form (4NF)
Fifth Normal Form (5NF)
In practice, 1NF, 2NF, and 3NF are enough for the database.
The official qualifications for 1NF are:
Additional:
Choose a primary key.
Reminder:
A primary key is unique, not null, unchanged. A primary key can be either an attribute or combined attributes.
Group  Topic  Student  Score 

Group A  Intro MongoDB  Sok San  18 marks 
Sao Ry  17 marks  
Group B  Intro MySQL  Chan Tina  19 marks 
Tith Sophea  16 marks 
It violates the 1NF because:
Attribute values are not single.
Repeating groups exist.
Now it is in 1NF.
However, it might still violate 2NF and so on.
We say an attribute, B, has a functional dependency on another attribute, A, if for any two records, which have the same value for A, then the values for B in these two records must be the same. We illustrate this as:
employee name email address
If EmpNum is the PK then the FDs:
EmpNum, EmpEmail, EmpFname, EmpLname must exist.
Functional Dependency
EmpNum –> EmpEmail
Attribute on the lefthand side is known as the
determinant
• EmpNum is a determinant of EmpEmail
The official qualifications for 2NF are:
All partial dependencies are removed to place in another table.
The Course Name depends on only CourseID, a part of the primary key, not the whole primary {CourseID, SemesterID}.It’s called partial dependency.
Solution: Remove CourseID and Course Name together to create a new table.
The official qualifications for 3NF are:
1. A table is already in 2NF.
2. Nonprimary key attributes do not depend on other
nonprimary key attributes
(i.e. no transitive dependencies)
All transitive dependencies are removed to place in
another table.
Solution:
Remove Teacher Name and Teacher Tel together to create a new table.
The official qualifications for BCNF are:
All determinants that are not superkeys are removed to place in another table.
Key: {Student, Course}
Functional Dependency:
{Student, Course} –> Teacher
Teacher–> Course
Problem: Teacher is not a superkey but determines Course.
The official qualifications for 4NF are:
1. A table is already in BCNF.
2. A table contains no multivalued dependencies.
* Multivalued dependency: MVDs occur when two
or more independent multi valued facts about the
same attribute occur within the same table.
A =>=> B (B multivalued depends on A)
The official qualifications for 5NF are:
1. A table is already in 4NF.
2. The attributes of multivalued dependencies are related.
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]]>There are several processes and algorithms available to convert ER Diagrams into Relational Schema. Some of them are automated and some of them are manual. We may focus here on the mapping diagram contents to relational basics.
ER diagrams mainly comprise of −
An entity is a realworld object with some attributes.
A relationship is an association among entities.
A weak entity set is one which does not have any primary key associated with it.
ER specialization or generalization comes in the form of hierarchical entity sets.
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]]>Download a map to use offline on Android device
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]]>The post UGC NET Syllabus appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>UGC NET Paper 1: The main objective is to assess the teaching and research capabilities of the candidates. Therefore, the test is aimed at assessing the teaching and general/research aptitude as Well as their awareness. They are expected to possess and exhibit cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities include comprehension, analysis, evaluation, understanding the structure of arguments and deductive and inductive reasoning. The candidates are also expected to have a general awareness and knowledge of sources of information. They should be aware of interaction between people, environment and natural resources and their impact on quality of life.
Question Pattern: Paper 1 is General Paper on Teaching and Research Aptitude and is compulsory for all subjects with the subject code 00. The UGC NET Examination Paper I contains Sixty (60) multiple choice questions, each question carrying two (2) marks. Candidate is expected to answer any Fifty (50) questions. In case more than Fifty (50) questions are attempted, only the first Fifty (50) questions will be evaluated. Paper I will have 100 marks in total. The objective type questions will include multiple choices, matching type, true / false and assertionreasoning type.
www.netugc.com
Each section of the syllabus will gets equal weightage: five questions and 10 mark each section. Whenever pictorial questions are set for the sighted candidates a passage followed by equal number of questions should be set for the visually handicapped candidates.
I. Teaching Aptitude
Teaching : Nature, objectives, characteristics and basic requirements; Learner’s characteristics; Factors affecting teaching; Methods of teaching; Teaching aids; Evaluation systems.
II. Research Aptitude
Research : Meaning, characteristics and types; Steps of research; Methods of research; Research Ethics; Paper, article, workshop, seminar, conference and symposium; Thesis writing: its characteristics and format.
.
www.netugc.com
III. Reading Comprehension
A passage to be set with questions to be answered.
IV. Communication
Communication : Nature, characteristics, types, barriers and effective classroom communication.
V. Reasoning (Including Mathematical)
Number series; letter series; codes; > Relationships; classification.
VI. Logical Reasoning
Understanding the structure of arguments; Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning; Verbal analogies : Word analogy — Applied analogy; Verbal classification.
Reasoning Logical Diagrams : Simple diagrammatic relationship, multidiagrammatic relationship;
Venn diagram; Analytical Reasoning.
VII. Data Interpretation
Sources, acquisition and interpretation of datag. ‘P Quantitative and qualitative data; > Graphical representation and mapping of data.
VIII. Information and Communicating Technology (ICT)
ICT : meaning, advantages, disadvantages and uses; > General abbreviations and terminology; > Basics of internet and emailing.
IX. People and Environment
People and environment interaction;
Sources of pollution;
Pollutants and their impact on human life, exploitation of natural and energy
resources;
Natural hazards and mitigation
.
X. Higher Education System : Governance Polity And Administration;
Structure of the institutions for higher learning and research in India; formal and distance education; professional/technical and general education; value education: governance, polity and administration; concept, institutions and their interactions.
Sets, Relations, Functions. Pigeonhole Principle, InclusionExclusion Principle, Equivalence and Partial Orderings, Elementary Counting Techniques, Probability. Measure (s) for information and Mutual information.
Computability: Models of computationFinite Automata, Pushdown Automata, Non – determinism and NFA, DPDA and PDAs and Languages accepted by these structures. Grammars, Languages, Non – computability and Examples of non – computable problems
Graph : Definition, walks, paths, trails, connected graphs, regular and bipartite graphs, cycles and circuits. Tree and rooted tree. Spanning trees. Eccentricity of a vertex radius and diameter of a graph. Central Graphs. Centres of a tree. Hamiltonian and Eulerian graphs, Planar graphs.
Groups : Finite fields and Error correcting / detecting codes.
Theory of Computation: Formal language, Need for formal computational models, Noncomputational problems, diagonal argument and Russel’s paradox.
Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), Non – deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA), Regular languages and regular sets, Equivalence of DFA and NFA. Minimizing the number of states of a DFA. Nonregular languages, and Pumping lemma.
Pushdown Automaton (PDA), Deterministic Pushdown Automaton ( DPDA ), Non – equilvalence of PDA and DPDA.
Context free Grammars: Greibach Normal Form ( GNF ) and Chomsky Normal Form (CNF), Ambiguity, Parse Tree Representation of Derivations. Equivalence of PDA’s and CFG’s. Parsing techniques for parsing of general CFG’s – Early’s, Cook – KassamiYounger (CKY), and Tomita’s parsing.
Linear Bounded Automata (LBA) : Power of LBA Closure properties.
Turing Machine (TM): One tape, multitape. The notions of time and space complexity in terms of TM. Construction of TM for simple problems. Computational complexity.
Chomsky Hierarchy of languages: Recursive and recursivelyenumerable languages.
Models for Information Channel : Discrete Memoryless Channel, Binary Symmetric Channel ( BSC ), Burst Channel, Biterror rates. Probability, Entropy and Shannon’s measure of information. Mutual information. Channel capacity theorem. Rate and optimality of Information transmission.
Variable Length Codes : Prefix Codes, Huffmann Codes, LempelZiev ( LZ ) Codes. Optirnality of these codes. Information content of these codes.
Error Correcting and Detecting Codes: Finite fields, Hamming distance, Bounds of codes, Linear (Parity Check) codes, Parity check matrix, Generator matrix, Decoding of linear codes, Hamming codes.
Image Processing: Image Registration, Spatial Fourier Transforms, Discrete Spatial ( 2 dimensional ) Fourier Transforms, Restoration, Lossy Compression of images ( pictures ).
Data Compression Techniques: Representation and compression of text, sound, picture, and video files ( based on the JPEG and MPEG standards ).
Propositional (Boolean) Logic, Predicate Logic, Well – formed – formulae (WFF), Satisfiability and Tautology.
Logic Families: TTL, ECL and C – MOS gates. Boolean algebra and Minimization of Boolean functions. Flipflops – types, race condition and comparison. Design of combinational and sequential circuits.
Representation of Integers : Octal, Hex, Decimal, and Binary. 2’s complement and 1’s complement arithmetic. Floating point representation.
Programming in C: Elements of C – Tokens, identifiers, data types in C. Control structures in C. Sequence, selection and iteration(s). Structured data types in Carrays, struct, union, string, and pointers.
O – O Programming Concepts: Class, object, instantiation. Inheritance, polymorphism and overloading.
C++ Programming: Elements of C++ – Tokens, identifiers. Variables and constants, Datatypes, Operators, Control statements. Functions parameter passing. Class and objects. Constructors and destructors. Overloading, Inheritance, Templates, Exception handling.
ER diagrams and their transformation to relational design, normalization – INF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF and 4NF. Limitations of 4NF and BCNF.
SQL: Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML), Data Control Language (DCL) commands. Database objects likeViews, indexes, sequences, synonyms, data dictionary.
Data, Information, Definition of data structure. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, graphs, priority queues and heaps.
File Structures: Fields, records and files. Sequential, direct, indexsequential and relative files. Hashing, inverted lists and multi – lists. B trees and B+ trees.
Network fundamentals : Local Area Networks (LAN), Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Wireless Networks, Inter Networks.
Reference Models: The OSI model, TCP / IP model.
Data Communication: Channel capacity. Transmission mediatwisted pair, coaxial cables, fibre – optic cables, wireless transmissionradio, microwave, infrared and millimeter waves. Lightwave transmission. Thelephones – local loop, trunks, multiplexing, switching, narrowband ISDN, broadband ISDN, ATM, High speed LANS. Cellular Radio. Communication satellitesgeosynchronous and loworbit.
Internetworking: Switch / Hub, Bridge, Router, Gateways, Concatenated virtual circuits, Tunnelling, Fragmentation, Firewalls.
Routing: Virtual circuits and datagrams. Routing algorithms. Conjestion control.
Network Security: Cryptographypublic key, secret key. Domain Name System ( DNS ) – Electronic Mail and Worldwide Web ( WWW ). The DNS, Resource Records, Name servers. Emailarchitecture and Serves.
Neural Networks : Perceptron model, Linear separability and XOR problem. Two and three layered neural nets, Back Propagation – Convergence, Hopfield nets, Neural net learning, Applications.
Fuzzy Systems: Definition of a Fuzzy set, Fuzzy relations, Fuzzy functions, Fuzzy measures, Fuzzy reasoning, Applications of Fuzzy systems
Assembly language fundamentals ( 8085 based assembly language programming ). Assemblers2pass and singlepass. Macros and macroprocessors.
Loading, linking, relocation, program relocatability. Linkage editing.
Text editors. Programming Environments. Debuggers and program generators.
Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers. Phases of compilation process. Lexical analysis. Lex package on Unix system.
Context free grammars. Parsing and parse trees. Representation of parse ( derivation ) trees as rightmost and leftmost derivations. Bottom up parsersshiftreduce, operator precedence, and LR. YACC package on Unix system.
Topdown parsersleft recursion and its removal. Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser. Intermediate codesQuadruples, Triples, Intermediate code generation, Code generation, Code optimization.
Main functions of operating systems. Multiprogramming, multiprocessing, and multitasking.
Memory Management: Virtual memory, paging, fragmentation.
Concurrent Processing: Mutual exclusion. Critical regions, lock and unlock.
Scheduling: CPU scheduling, I / O scheduling, Resource scheduling. Deadlock and scheduling algorithms. Banker’s algorithm for deadlock handling.
UNIX: The Unix System : File system, process management, bourne shell, shell variables, command line programming.
Filters and Commands : Pr, head, tail, cut, paste, sort, uniq, tr, join, etc., grep, egrep, fgrep, etc., sed, awk, etc.
System Calls ( like ) : Creat, open, close, read, write, iseek, link, unlink, stat, fstat, umask, chmod, exec, fork, wait, system.
Unix : Operating System, Structure of Unix Operating System, Unix Commands, Interfacing with Unix, Editors and Compilers for Unix, LEX and YACC, File system, System calls, Filters, Shell programming.
Windows : Windows environment, Unicode, Documents and Views, Drawing in a window, Message handling, Scrolling and Splitting views, Docking toolbars and Status bars, Common dialogs and Controls, MDI, Multithreading, OLE, Active X controls, ATL, Database access, Network programming.
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) : Steps, Water fall model, Prototypes, Spiral model.
Software Metrics: Software Project Management.
Software Design: System design, detailed design, function oriented design, object oriented design, user interface design. Design level metrics.
Coding and Testing: Testing level metrics. Software quality and reliability. Clean room approach, software reengineering.
The topics of current interest in Computer Science and Computer Applications shall be covered. The experts shall use their judgement from time to time to include the topics of popular interest, which are expected to be known for an application development software professional, currently, they include:
Parallel Computing: Parallel virtual machine ( pvm ) and message passing interface ( MPI ) libraries and calls. Advanced architectures. Today’s fastest computers.
Mobile Computing: Mobile connectivity – Cells, Framework, wireless delivery technology and switching methods, mobile information access devices, mobile data internetworking standards, cellular data communication protocols, mobile computing applications. Mobile databases – protocols, scope, tools and technology. Mbusiness.
E – Technologies
Electronic Commerce: Framework, Media Convergence of Applications, Consumer Applications, Organisation Applications.
Electronic Payment Systems: Digital Token, Smart Cards, Credit Cards, Risks in Electronic Payment System, Designing Electronic Payment Systems.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Concepts, Applications, (Legal, Security and Privacy) issues, EDI and Electronic Commerce, Standardization and EDI, EDI Software Implementation, EDI Envelope for Message Transport, Internet – Based EDI.
Digital Libraries and Data Warehousing: Concepts, Types of Digital documents, Issues behind document Infrastructure, Corporate Data Warehouses.
Software Agents: Characteristics and Properties of Agents, Technology behind Software Agents (Applets, Browsers and Software Agents).
Broadband Telecommunications: Concepts, Frame Relay, Cell Relay, Switched Multimegabit Data Service, Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
Main concepts in Geographical Information System (GIS), E – cash, E – Business, ERP packages.
Data Warehousing: Data Warehouse environment, architecture of a data warehouse methodology, analysis, design, construction and administration.
Data Mining: Extracting models and patterns from large databases, data mining techniques, classification, regression, clustering, summarization, dependency modelling, link analysis, sequencing analysis, mining scientific and business data.
Windows Programming: Introduction to Windows programming – Win32, Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC), Documents and views, Resources, Message handling in windows.
Simple Applications (in windows) : Scrolling, splitting views, docking toolbars, status bars, common dialogs.
Advanced Windows Programming: Multiple Document Interface ( MDI ), Multithreading. Object linking and Embedding (OLE). Active X controls. Active Template Library (ATL). Network programming.
Unit – 11
Combinational Circuit Design, Sequential Circuit Design, Hardwired and Micro Programmed processor design, Instruction formats, Addressing modes, Memory types and organisation, Interfacing peripheral devices, Interrupts.
Microprocessor architecture, Instruction set and Programming ( 8085, P – III / P – IV ), Microprocessor applications.
Unit – 12:
Database Concepts, ER diagrams, Data Models, Design of Relational Database, Normalisation, SQL and QBE, Query Processing and Optimisation, Centralised and Distributed Database, Security, Concurrency and Recovery in Centralised and Distributed Database Systems, Object Oriented Database Management Systems ( Concepts, Composite objects, Integration with RDBMS application), ORACLE.
Unit – 13:
Display systems, Input devices, 2D Geometry, Graphic operations, 3D Graphics, Animation, Graphic standard, Applications.
Concepts, Storage Devices, Input Tools, Authoring Tools, Application, Files.
Unit – 14:
Programming language concepts, paradigms and models.
Data : Data types, Operators, Expressions, Assignment. Flow of Control.
Control structures, I / O statements, User – defined and built – in functions, Parameter passing.
Principles, classes, inheritance, class hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, reference semantics and their implementation.
Principles, functions, lists, types and polymorphisms, higher order functions, lazy evaluation, equations and pattern matching.
Principles, horn clauses and their execution, logical variables, relations, data structures, controlling the search order, program development in prolog, implementation of prolog, example programs in prolog.
Principles of parallelism, coroutines, communication and execution. Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) routines and calls. Parallel programs in PVM paradigm as well as MPI paradigm for simple problems like matrix multiplication.
Preconditions, postconditions, axiomatic approach for semantics, correctness, denotational semantics.
Compiler structure, compiler construction tools, compilation phases.
Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata. Nondeterminism and NFA, DPDA, and PDAs and languages accepted by these structures. Grammars, Languages – types of grammars – type 0, type 1, type 2, and type 3. The relationship between types of grammars, and finite machines. Pushdown automata and Context Free Grammars. Lexical Analysisregular expressions and regular languages. LEX package on Unix. Conversion of NFA to DFA. Minimizing the number of states in a DFA Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers.
Context free grammars. Parsing and parse trees. Representation of parse ( derivation ) trees as rightmost and leftmost derivations. Bottom up parsersshiftreduce, operator precedence, and LR. YACC package on Unix system. Top down parsersleft recursion and its removal. Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser, Intermediate codes – Quadruples, triples. Intermediate code generation, code generation. Code optimization.
Linear Programming Problem ( LPP ) in the standard form, LPP in Canonical form. Conversion of LPP in Standard form to LPP in Canonical form. SimplexPrevention of cyclic computations in Simplex and Tableau, BigM method, dual simplex and revised simplex.
Complexity of simplex algorithm(s). Exponential behaviour of simplex.
Ellipsoid method and Karmakar’s method for solving LPPs. Solving simple LPPs through these methods. Comparison of complexity of these methods.
Assignment and Transportation Problems : Simple algorithms like Hungarian method, etc.
Shortest Path Problems : Dijkstra’s and Moore’s method. Complexity.
Network Flow Problem : Formulation. Max – Flow Min – Cut theorem. Ford and Fulkerson’s algorithm. Exponential behaviour of Ford and Fulkerson’s algorithm. Malhotra – PramodkumarMaheshwari ( MPM ) Polynomial algorithm for solving Network flow problem. Bipartite Graphs and Matchings; Solving matching problems using Network flow problems.
Matroids : Definition. Graphic and Cographic matroids. Matroid intersection problem.
Nonlinear Programming : Kuhn – Tucker conditions. Convex functions and Convex regions. Convex programming problems. Algorithms for solving convex programming problemsRate of convergence of iterative methods for solving these problems.
Unit – 15:
Analog and Digital transmission, Asynchronous and Synchronous transmission, Transmission media, Multiplexing and Concentration, Switching techniques, Polling.
Topologies, Networking Devices, OSI Reference Model, Protocols for:
Data link layer
Network layer
Transport layer, TCP / IP protocols, Networks security, Network administration.
Unit – 16:
Definition, Simple and Composite structures, Arrays, Lists, Stacks queues, Priority queues. Binary trees, B – trees, Graphs.
Sorting and Searching Algorithms, Analysis of Algorithms, Interpolation and Binary Search, Asymptotic notationsbig ohm, omega and theta. Average case analysis of simple programs like finding of a maximum of n elements. Recursion and its systematic removal. Quicksort – Non – recursive implementation with minimal stack storage. Design of Algorithms ( Divide and Conquer, Greedy method, Dynamic programming, Back tracking, Branch and Bound ). Lower bound theory, Non – deterministic algorithm – Non – deterministic programming constructs. Simple nondeterministic programs. NP – hard and NP – complete problems.
Unit – 17:
Object, messages, classes, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, aggregation, abstract classes, generalization as extension and restriction. Object oriented design. Multiple inheritance, metadata.
HTML, DHTML, XML, Scripting, Java, Servelets, Applets.
Unit – 18:
Software development models, Requirement analysis and specifications, Software design, Programming techniques and tools, Software validation and quality assurance techniques, Software maintenance and advanced concepts, Software management.
Unit – 19:
Introduction, Memory management, Support for concurrent process, Scheduling, System deadlock, Multiprogramming system, I/O management, Distributed operating systems, Study of Unix and Windows NT.
Unit – 20:
Definitions, AI approach for solving problems.
Automated Reasoning with prepositional logic and predicate logicfundamental proof procedure, refutation, resolution, refinements to resolution ( ordering / pruning / restriction strategies ).
State space representation of problems, bounding functions, breadth first, depth first, A, A*, AO*, etc. Performance comparison of various search techniques.
Frames, scripts, semantic nets, production systems, procedural representations. Prolog programming.
Components of an expert system, Knowledge representation and Acquisition techniques, Building expert system and Shell.
RTNs, ATNs, Parsing of Ambiguous CFGs. Tree Adjoining Grammars ( TAGs ).
Systems approach to planning, Designing, Development, Implementation and Evaluation of MIS.
Decisionmaking processes, evaluation of DSS, Group decision support system and case studies, Adaptive design approach to DSS development, Cognitive style in DSS, Integrating expert and Decision support systems.
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]]>Quantitative Aptitude Syllabus
Reasoning Syllabus
Mathematical and Computer Operations
Verbal Ability Syllabus
Question 1: A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at the cost price but uses a weight of 800gm instead of 1kg. Find his real gain percent.
Answer: AQuestion 2: A sum of money lent out at simple interest amounts to Rs. 720 after 2 years and to Rs. 1,020 after a further period of 5 years. The sum and the rate % are
Answer: 3
Question 3: A train with 90 km/h crosses a bridge in 36 seconds. Another train 100 metres shorter crosses the same bridge at 45 km/h. What is the time taken by the second train to cross the bridge?
Answer: 4Question 4: Ramesh travels 760 km to his home, partly by train and partly by car He takes 8 hours, if he travels 160 km by train and the rest by car. He takes 12 minutes more, if he travels 240 km by train and the rest by car. What are the speeds of the train and of the car?
Answer: 2Question 5: Some students planned a picnic. The budget for food was Rs. 500. But, 5 of them failed to go and thus the cost of food for each member increased by Rs. 5. How many students attended the picnic?
Answer: 3
Question 6: After being set up, a company manufactured 6000 scooters in the third year and 7000 scooters in the seventh year. Assuming that the production increases uniformly by a fixed number every year, what is the production in the tenth year?
Answer: 3
Question 7: The average score of boys in an examination in a school is 71 and that of the girls is 73. The average score of the school is 71.8. The ratio of the number of boys to that of the girls that appeared in the examination is
Answer: 4
Question8: The mean monthly salary paid to 75 workers in a factory is Rs. 5,680. The mean salary of 25 of them is Rs. 5,400 and that of 30 others is Rs. 5,700. The mean salary of the remaining workers is
Answer: 3
Question 9: A sum of Rs. 25 was paid for a work which A can do in 32 days, B in 20 days, B and C in 12 days and D in 24 days. How much did C receive if all the four work together?
Answer: 2
Question10: A man sold two steel chairs for Rs. 500 each. On one, he gains 20% and on other, he loses 12%. How much does he gain or lose in the whole transaction?
Answer: 1
Question11: Look at this series: 22, 21, 23, 22, 24, 23, … What number should come next?
Answer: 3
Question12: Statements:
Answer: 3
Question13: Statements: Some actors are singers. All the singers are dancers.Conclusions:
Answer: 1
Question14: Statements: Some mangoes are yellow. Some tixo are mangoes.Conclusions:
Answer: 4
Question 15: Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.Conclusions:
Answer: 2
Question 16: Statements: Some ants are parrots. All the parrots are apples.Conclusions:
Answer: 3
Question 17: Statements: Some papers are pens. All the pencils are pens.Conclusions:
Answer: 3
Question18: A, B, C, D and E are sitting on a bench. A is sitting next to B, C is sitting next to D, D is not sitting with E who is on the left end of the bench. C is on the second position from the right. A is to the right of B and E. A and C are sitting together. In which position A is sitting?
Answer: 2
Question19: If the room had been brighter, I would have been able to read for a while before bed Time.
Answer: 3
Question 20: The intruder stood quietly for few moments
Answer: 3
Infosys Placement Papers Of Technical RoundIn the below section, we are providing some Technical Round questions which usually asked by recruiter:
Infosys HR Interview Questions:In the below section, we are providing some interview questions which usually ask in interview session.
Infosys solved Placement Papers  Official Link 
Infosys Placement Papers With Answers  Get PDF 
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]]>The post Aptitude: Problems on H.C.F and L.C.M appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>1. Factors and Multiples: –If number a divided another number b exactly, we say that a is a factor of b. In this case, b is called a multiple of a.
2. Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) or Greatest Common Measure (G.C.M.) or Greatest Common Divisor (G.C.D.): The H.C.F. of two or more than two numbers is the greatest number that divides each of them exactly. There are two methods of finding the H.C.F. of a given set of numbers:
I. Factorization Method: Express the each one of the given numbers as the product of prime factors. The product of least powers of common prime factors gives H.C.F.
II. Division Method: Suppose we have to find the H.C.F. of two given numbers, divide the larger by the smaller one. Now, divide the divisor by the remainder. Repeat the process of dividing the preceding number by the remainder last obtained till zero is obtained as remainder. The last divisor is required H.C.F.
Finding the H.C.F. of more than two numbers: Suppose we have to find the H.C.F. of three numbers, then, H.C.F. of [(H.C.F. of any two) and (the third number)] gives the H.C.F. of three given number. Similarly, the H.C.F. of more than three numbers may be obtained.
3. Least Common Multiple (L.C.M.): The least number which is exactly divisible by each one of the given numbers is called their L.C.M. There are two methods of finding the L.C.M. of a given set of numbers:
I. Factorization Method: Resolve each one of the given numbers into a product of prime factors. Then, L.C.M. is the product of highest powers of all the factors.
II. Division Method (shortcut): Arrange the given numbers in a rwo in any order. Divide by a number which divided exactly at least two of the given numbers and carry forward the numbers which are not divisible. Repeat the above process till no two of the numbers are divisible by the same number except 1. The product of the divisors and the undivided numbers is the required L.C.M. of the given numbers.
4. Product of two numbers = Product of their H.C.F. and L.C.M.
5. Coprimes: Two numbers are said to be coprimes if their H.C.F. is 1.
6. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Fractions:
1. H.C.F. =H.C.F. of Numerators/L.C.M. of Denominators
2. L.C.M. =L.C.M. of Numerators/H.C.F. of Denominators
8. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Decimal Fractions: In a given numbers, make the same number of decimal places by annexing zeros in some numbers, if necessary. Considering these numbers without decimal point, find H.C.F. or L.C.M. as the case may be. Now, in the result, mark off as many decimal places as are there in each of the given numbers.
9. Comparison of Fractions: Find the L.C.M. of the denominators of the given fractions. Convert each of the fractions into an equivalent fraction with L.C.M as the denominator, by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the same number. The resultant fraction with the greatest numerator is the greatest.
QUESTIONS
1.Find the greatest number that will divide 43, 91 and 183 so as to leave the same remainder in each case.
A.4
B.7
C.9
D.13
2.The H.C.F. of two numbers is 23 and the other two factors of their L.C.M. are 13 and 14. The larger of the two numbers is:
A.276
B.299
C.322
D.345
3.Six bells commence tolling together and toll at intervals of 2, 4, 6, 8 10 and 12 seconds respectively. In 30 minutes, how many times do they toll together ?
A.4
B.10
C.15
D.16
4.Let N be the greatest number that will divide 1305, 4665 and 6905, leaving the same remainder in each case. Then sum of the digits in N is:
A.4
B.5
C.6
D.8
5.The greatest number of four digits which is divisible by 15, 25, 40 and 75 is:
A.9000
B.9400
C.9600
D.9800
6.The product of two numbers is 4107. If the H.C.F. of these numbers is 37, then the greater number is:
A.101
B.107
C.111
D.185
7.Three number are in the ratio of 3 : 4 : 5 and their L.C.M. is 2400. Their H.C.F. is:
A.40
B.80
C.120
D.200
8.The G.C.D. of 1.08, 0.36 and 0.9 is:
A.0.03
B.0.9
C.0.18
D.0.108
9.The product of two numbers is 2028 and their H.C.F. is 13. The number of such pairs is:
A.1
B.2
C.3
D.4
10.The least multiple of 7, which leaves a remainder of 4, when divided by 6, 9, 15 and 18 is:
A.74
B.94
C.184
D.364
The post Aptitude: Problems on H.C.F and L.C.M appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>The post Aptitude: Problems on Numbers appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>QUESTION
1.If onethird of onefourth of a number is 15, then threetenth of that number is:
A.35
B.36
C.45
D.54
2.Three times the first of three consecutive odd integers is 3 more than twice the third. The third integer is:
A.9
B.11
C.13
D.15
3.The difference between a twodigit number and the number obtained by interchanging the positions of its digits is 36. What is the difference between the two digits of that number?
A.3
B.4
C.9
D.Cannot be determined
E.None of these
4.The difference between a twodigit number and the number obtained by interchanging the digits is 36. What is the difference between the sum and the difference of the digits of the number if the ratio between the digits of the number is 1 : 2 ?
A.4
B.8
C.16
D.None of these
5.A twodigit number is such that the product of the digits is 8. When 18 is added to the number, then the digits are reversed. The number is:
A.18
B.24
C.42
D.81
6.The sum of the digits of a twodigit number is 15 and the difference between the digits is 3. What is the twodigit number?
A.69
B.78
C.96
D.Cannot be determined
E.None of these
7.The sum of the squares of three numbers is 138, while the sum of their products taken two at a time is 131. Their sum is:
A.20
B.30
C.40
D.None of these
8.A number consists of two digits. If the digits interchange places and the new number is added to the original number, then the resulting number will be divisible by:
A.3
B.5
C.9
D.11
9.In a twodigit, if it is known that its unit’s digit exceeds its ten’s digit by 2 and that the product of the given number and the sum of its digits is equal to 144, then the number is:
A.24
B.26
C.42
D.46
10. Find a positive number which when increased by 17 is equal to 60 times the reciprocal of the number.
A. 3
B. 10
C. 17
D. 20
The post Aptitude: Problems on Numbers appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>The post Aptitude: Numbers appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>Some Basic Formula
i. (a + b)(a – b) = (a2 – b2)
ii. (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab)
iii. (a – b)2 = (a2 + b2 – 2ab)
iv. (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca)
v. (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 – ab + b2)
vi. (a3 – b3) = (a – b)(a2 + ab + b2)
:
vii. (a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ac)
viii. When a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc
QUESTION
1.Which one of the following is not a prime number?
A.31
B.61
C.71
D.91
2.(112 x 54) = ?
A.67000
B.70000
C.76500
D.77200
3.It is being given that (232 + 1) is completely divisible by a whole number. Which of the following numbers is completely divisible by this number?
A.(216 + 1)
B.(216 – 1)
C.(7 x 223)
D.(296 + 1)
4.What least number must be added to 1056, so that the sum is completely divisible by 23 ?
A.2
B.3
C.18
D.21
E.None of these
5.1397 x 1397 = ?
A.1951609
B.1981709
C.18362619
D.2031719
E.None of these
6.How many of the following numbers are divisible by 132 ? 264, 396, 462, 792, 968, 2178, 5184, 6336
A.4
B.5
C.6
D.7
7.(935421 x 625) = ?
A.575648125
B.584638125
C.584649125
D.85628125
8.The largest 4 digit number exactly divisible by 88 is:
A.9944
B.9768
C 9988
D.8888
E.None of these
9.Which of the following is a prime number ?
A.33
B.81
C.93
D.97
10.What is the unit digit in {(6374)1793 x (625)317 x (341491)}?
A.0
B.2
C.3
D.5
The post Aptitude: Numbers appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>The post Aptitude :: Compound Interest appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>Amount = P  1 +  R  n  
100 
Amount = P  1 +  (R/2)  2n  
100 
Amount = P  1 +  (R/4)  4n  
100 
Amount = P  1 +  R  3  x  1 +  R  
100  100 
Then, Amount = P  1 +  R_{1}  1 +  R_{2}  1 +  R_{3}  .  
100  100  100 
Present Worth =  x  .  

The post Aptitude :: Compound Interest appeared first on NewWalkin.
]]>